TYRE CARE AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

ALTERNATE LUG WEAR

Care-ALW-1

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tyre’s lugs are not wearing consistently because they are not making uniform contact with the highway.

Probable Causes

– Mismatched duals
– Inconsistent dual inflation (10 PSI or greater)
– Tread design / Tyre design

Corrective Actions

Alternate lug wear may routinely develop on certain tread types. The only solution may be to select a different tread design. Inflate tyres to fleet standard. Match dual by tyre brand, size and series (difference of no more than 1/4 in overall diameter).

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre. When worn area reaches tread wear indicators, retread the tyre. To obtain maximum mileage from the tread, rotate tyre to different drive wheel position.

BOTH SHOULDER WEAR

Care-BSW-2

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tread is not making flat contact with the highway. The outer portions of the tread are carrying most of the load because the tyre is underinflated for the load.

Probable Causes

– Inflation pressure and load

Corrective Actions

Refer to tyre manufacture’s load and inflation table for recommended inflation pressure at speeds the tyre will operate.
Establish a fleet standard inflation and maintain tyre inflation to fleet standard.

What to do with the tyre

Because this has run underinflated for the load, it may have been damaged internally. Running underinflated can lead to zipper rupture, a very dangerous tyre condition. Use extreme caution in handling this tyre.

If tyre inflation pressure is less than 80 percent of fleet standard, deflate the tyre by removing the valve core, then remove tyre and wheel (rim) assembly from vehicle. Demount tyre. Ask your dealer to inspect the tyre for evidence of run flat damage and, if none is found retread or replace the tyre.

If tyre inflation pressure is over 80 percent of fleet standard, inflate (or deflate) tyre to fleet standard and continue to run it. When worn areas breach tread wear indicators, retread or replace tyre.

BRAKE SKID

Care-BS-3

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tyre slid across the road surface, scuffing away the tread in one are. This generally happens as a result of brakes locking up due to brake malfunction or driver aggressively applying the brake in an emergency situation. Flat spotting can also occur if the tyre sat in oil, fuel or chemicals.

Probable Causes

– Brake lock due to malfunction or unbalanced brake system
– Aggressive brake action
– Tyre sitting in oil, fuel or chemicals

Corrective Actions

Look for scratches and directional abrasion in and the flat spot. If you find them, the spot is due to brake lock. You will find similar abrasion on the mated dual. Check the tyres on the opposite end of the axle. If they don’t have spots, only one brake locked, indicating a single brake problem. Correct the brake problem.

If you find softened or discoloured rubber adjacent to the flat spot, chances are the tyre sat in oil, fuel or chemicals. Avoid allowing tyres to sit in such materials.

What to do with the tyre

Tyre must be removed from service if a tyre with a flat spot is mated with a normal tyre, the normal tyre will also develop a flat spot-tyre, dealer may be able to repair the damages or retread the tyre. If damage is deeper than the top of the belt package, the tyre must be scrapped.

CUPPING / SCALLOPING

Care-C-S-5

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tyre is not tracking straight down the highway, but is bouncing sideways during parts of its rotation. It may be wobbing on the axle or rim. On trailers, the condition is aggravated by running empty. Because of the light load, the trailer begin to bounce, creating more irregular wear, which creates more bouncing, and so forth. The bouncing can create vehicle suspension bouncing, and so forth. The bouncing can create vehicle suspension component wear.

Probable Causes

– Loose wheel bearings
– Dismounted tyre / wheel assembly
– Out of balance wheel assembly
– Tread design / Tyre design
– Worn bearings, shocks, springs or other suspension components
– Mismatched duals
– Inconsistent dual inflation (10 PSI or greater)

Corrective Actions

Tighten wheel bearing. Check wheel assembly for proper mounting of tyre on wheel (or rim) and for proper mounting axle. If you have many tyres of the same tyre brand and design with cupping / scallop wear, test other tyre brands, tyre series or tread designs. Match duals by the brand, size and series (difference no more then 1/4˝ in overall diameter). Inflate tyres to fleet standard.

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre, when worn area reaches tread wear indicators, have the tyre retreaded or replace the tyre.

SPOTTY WEAR

Care-SW-4

PROBABLE CAUSES

– Dismounted tyre / wheel assembly
– Loose wheel bearing
– Worn bearings, shocks, springs or other suspension components
– Mismatched duals
– Inconsistent dual inflation
– Out of balance wheel assembly
– Brake lock due to malfunction or unbalanced brake system
– Aggressive brake application
– Tyre sitting in oil, fuel or chemicals

EROSION WEAR

Care-E-W-6

WHAT’S HAPPENING

This condition happens most frequently in free rolling wheel positions and is typical of tyres with low rate of wear. The longer a tyre operates, the more likely it will develop this condition. This condition is not linked to any maintenance practices.

Probable Causes

The cause of this condition is tread element movement laterally, but it is not seen as a major problem since the tread on the tyre is wearing so slowly and the accumulated mileage on the tread will be so great.

Corrective Actions

Continue to run tyre

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre, when worn area reaches tread wear indicators, have the tyre retreaded or replace the tyre.

DIAGONAL WEAR

Care-D-W-7

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tyre is not tracking straight down the highway, but is bouncing sideways during parts of its rotation. It may be wobbing on the axle or rim. On trailers, the condition is aggravated by running empty. Because of the light load, the trailer begin to bounce, creating more irregular wear, which creates more bouncing, and so forth. The bouncing can create vehicle suspension component wear.

Probable Causes

– Loose wheel bearings
– Dismounted tyre / wheel assembly
– Out of balance wheel assembly
– Tread design / Tyre design
– Worn bearings, shocks, springs or other
suspension components
– Mismatched duals
– Inconsistent dual inflation (10 PSI or greater)

Corrective Actions

Tighten wheel bearing. Check wheel assembly for proper mounting of tyre on wheel (or rim) and for proper mounting axle. If you have many tyres of the same tyre brand and design with cupping / scallop wear, test other tyre brands, tyre series or tread designs. Match duals by the brand, size and series (difference no more then 1/4˝ in overall diameter). Inflate tyres to fleet standard.

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre, when worn area reaches tread wear indicators, have the tyre retreaded or replace the tyre.

FEATHER EDGE WEAR

Care-F-E-8

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tyre is not tracking straight down the highway, but is cocked
slightly to the side.

Probable Causes

– Vehicle misalignment

Corrective Actions

Steer tyres
– If sharp edges on both steer tyres are pointed to the center of the vehicle, the cause is toe in. If sharp edges on both steer tyres are pointed towards the outside of the vehicle, the cause is toe out. Correct alignment.
– If sharp edges point in on one tyre and out on the other tyre, the cause is rear axle misalignment. Correct alignment.
– If only one of the steer tyres has feather edges wear, the cause is a combination of incorrect toe and rear axel misalignment. Correct both. Drive or Trailer tyres.
– Align axle perpendicular to frame rail and parallel to other axles.

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre, when worn area reaches tread wear indicators, have the tyre retreaded or replace the tyre.

HEEL / TOE WEAR

Care-H-T-9

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The trailing portion of the lungs are scuffing like a rubber eraser. The lungs are distorting during acceleration or during operations so they are not making flat contact on the highway.

Probable Causes

– Mismatched duals
– Inconsistent dual inflation (10 PSI or greater)
– Torque stress
– Tread design / Tyre design

Corrective Actions

Match duals by tyre brand, size series (difference no more than 1/4˝ in overall diameter). Inflate tyres to fleet standard. If the truck has a single drive axle, torque tress may be unavoidable. Also, in some applications, heel / toe wear may routinely develop on certain tread types. The only solution may be a tread design with larger, more stable tread elements or solid ribs.

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre, when worn area reaches tread wear indicators, have the tyre retreaded or replace the tyre. To obtain maximum mileage from the retread rotate the tyre to a different wheel position.

ONE-SIDED WEAR

Care-O-S-10

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tyre is worn from corrective steering due to vehicle thrust (rear axle misalignment), cocked (toe in or out), tilted (camber) or the axle is bending due to overloading.

Probable Causes

– Vehicle misalignment
– Overloaded axles

Corrective Actions

Steer tyres
– If one-sided wear is on the inside of one steer tyre and the outside of the other steer tyre, the cause is rear axle misalignment.
– If one-sided wear is on the outside of both steer tyres, the cause is either toe in or camber. Check both are correct.
– If one-sided wear is on the inside of both steer tyres, the cause is either toe out, camber or overloaded axles. Check and correct toe and camber settings. Check load specifications on the axle and keep loads within specs.

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre, when worn area reaches tread wear indicators, have the tyre retreaded or replace the tyre. To obtain maximum mileage from the retread rotate the tyre to a different wheel position.

RIP PUNCH

Care-R-P-11

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The worn areas are scrubbing the highway because the tread are is distorting in the footprint.

Probable Causes

Lack of shock absorber control in some suspension types, mismatched tyre sizes and / or inflation pressure, loose or worn bearings, assembly non-uniformity such as improper bead seating and out of balance condition, aggravated by high speed empty hauls.

Corrective Actions

Probe the casing in the tread area and feel the liner for separation. If you have many tyres with no punch, consider a different tyre manufacturer, tyre series or tread design.

What to do with the tyre

Remove tyre from service and send it to your dealer for retread considerations or replacement.

SHOULDER SCRUBBING

Care-S-S-12

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The tyre is being dragged sideways (later scrubbing). This is commonly seen in vehicles operating in spread axle or multi-axle configuration and on trailers subjected to tight turning maneuvers.

Probable Causes

– Lateral Scrub

Corrective Actions

Lateral scrub may be unavoidable for some applications. Some treads are designed to overcome the problem of lateral scrubbing.

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre if wear has not reached tread wear indicators and scrubbing has not damaged the integrity of the casing. To obtain maximum milage from tread, rotate the  tyre to a different wheel position. When worn area reaches tread wear indicators, retread tyre or replace the tyre.

SHOULDER STEP

Care-S-S-13

WHAT’S HAPPENING

The condition is typical to certain tyre brands and long wearing tread designs. This condition is not linked to any maintenance practises.

Probable Causes

This condition is related to tread designs that provide extremely long wear. It is not seen as major problems since the tread on the tyre is wearing slowly and accumulated mileage on the tread will be so great.

Corrective Actions

Tyres with decoupling grooves appear to have a lower incidence of shoulder step / chamfer wear. If you have many tyres with this condition, consider a tread design with a decoupling groove.

What to do with the tyre

Continue to run tyre, when worn areas reach tread wear indicators, retread or replace tyre. To obtain maximum mileage from the retread rotate the tyre to a different wheel position.